There is number of an overview of career development theories in Malawi, but none is much comprehensive. As such, you need to be fully aware of each theory’s limitations, strengths, and of course, biases.
For example, most theories are limited to women, minorities, and socioeconomic variety are understated in most research. Furthermore, some theories may not be the same in all cultures mainly because the theories are based on specific cultures.
Nevertheless, the career development theories and models in Malawi is the first stage to get prepped for all the Malawi career choice theory. So in other to conduct yourself professionally, you need to get the tools that’ll help you find and solve problems.
This is why the overview of career development theories in Malawi is of great importance. You need to solve the ethical implications of the complex situations that can come up anytime in the super career theory in Malawi.
Applying the Overview of Career Development Theories in Malawi
Also, there is the need to learn how you can apply a decision-making structure to ensure that you’re working properly. For this reason, it’s highly recommended that career counselors or anyone involved bring up holistic approach.
This holistic approach can be done by finalizing from a mishmash of theories that best fit their own style. The overview of career development theories in Malawi comes in four ways:
- Sociology emphasizes on occupational mobility
- Developmental Psychology
- Personality Psychology. (views people as the organizer if their own experiences)
- Differential Psychology which involves work and occupation
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
This is important to the overview of career development theories in Malawi. The work concerned needs follow the basic needs, which begins at level 2 as follows:
- Second Level – safety needs: concerns basic needs, property, family, resources, and security of employment.
- Third – Love and belonging: this is where people start working and developing their career paths.
- Fourth Level – Esteem: Attaining career status
- Fifth Level – Self-Actualization: When an individual gets to this level, they feel comfortable relying on his own judgments and experiences. He’s at the level where he’s comfortable with himself, sees situations as challenges, creative, not afraid to accept others’ skills. He may also have the urge to fulfill inner potential.
Frank Parsons’ Trait and Factor Theory
This helps in the career guidance theories for Malawians. In the 1900sm Frank Parsons came up with a talent-match approach. This later advanced into the Trait and Factor Theory of Occupational Choice.
- Individuals and occupations have each distinctive features and traits.
Individuals develop these traits over their lifetime.
- The highest fulfillment comes when there is a perfect match between the features of the individual and the occupation.
- Many aptitude tests, like True Colors, are based on Trait and Factor Theory.
- One problem with this theory is it depends on the stability of the labor market, interests, individuals’ values, etc. over a long time. Individuals must, therefore, must be prepared to change and adapt to the circumstances.
Career Typology Theory of John Holland
Under the side-shoot of Trait and Factor Theory, career choice is not unsystematic but an expression of our personality. The concentration is on personal characteristics and occupational tasks.
- Individuals have a combination of two or more of six personality types: investigative, realistic, artistic, social, enterprising, and conventional. Note that occupational environments are also a combination of these six types.
- Holland theorized that people in similar jobs have similar personality traits
- The highest career fulfillment comes when there is a similarity between the individual’s type and that of the occupation.
Many career assessment tools are based on Holland’s theories.
- The advantage is that it helps the individual to focus on to diverse work environments.
- The limitation is that there is no understanding as to what type develops or how to work with specific types.
Career Development Theory of Donald E. Super
Donald E. Super development self-concept theory focuses on how careers unravel over a life span. On the contrary, multi-faceted biological, psychological, sociological and cultural factors can affect career choice
- Life stage, self-concept and life roles (e.g., worker, student, spouse, mother) are central to super’s theory, as developmental stages of work (growth, exploration, establishment, maintenance, and decline)
- People choose careers that allow them to express their self-concept. If someone’s self-concept becomes more stable, so will their career choices.
- People have different abilities, self-concepts, and personalities. They are qualified for a diversity of occupations based on these and other features, which changes with time and experience.
- Multiple trial careers involve new growth, re-establishment, and re-exploration
- Career maturity is the agreement between vocation and current life stage.
- Negative self-concept is connected to less satisfying work choices. The work can seem as not satisfying if it’s not an expression of an individual’s vocational abilities, values, and interests.
These are some of the overviews of career development theories in Malawi which are very important. But remember however that, there are many other theories out there with its own concepts.